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家庭盆栽山茶技术

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2013-10-22  浏览次数:845162
内容摘要:山茶以树态优美、花大色艳、花期长而招人喜爱。要养好家庭盆栽山茶,应加强如下管理工作 1.选择适当的盆器盆栽山茶宜用通透性好的土陶盆。盆底排水孔用4块瓦片搭成介字形,其上放层干果壳(如花生壳、板栗壳、核桃壳),以增强透气性、排水性。用盆忌过大,

农民信息网玩家汇娱乐 www.diormovie.com   山茶以树态优美、花大色艳、花期长而招人喜爱。要养好家庭盆栽山茶,应加强如下管理工作

玩家汇娱乐   1.选择适当的盆器盆栽山茶宜用通透性好的土陶盆。盆底排水孔用4块瓦片搭成“介字形”,其上放层干果壳(如花生壳、板栗壳、核桃壳),以增强透气性、排水性。用盆忌过大,盆径与山茶树冠径相等最好,盆大土多,易导致茶花肉质根烂根,栽小苗用大盆易造成生长不良。

  2.合理配制盆土,及时翻盆换土山茶对土质要求较严,喜含腐殖质较多、疏松肥沃、湿润、排水良好的微酸性(ph值5~6)沙壤土。家庭盆栽可用黄土加20%~30%的食用菌渣或沤熟的锯木屑,再添加5%腐熟有机肥、2%~3%沤熟的菜枯或棉枯饼及10%细沙,混合拌匀,配成“五合一”盆土,忌用重黏土、盐碱土。翻盆换土宜在10月上旬或花谢后新叶未展开前进行。小苗每年换1次,成年植株隔年换1次。

玩家汇娱乐   3.创造适宜的温光条件①光照条件。山茶虽喜半阴,但并非一年四季都不要阳光,冬春季节宜全日照,特别是4月~6月,如没有阳光照射,光合作用不足,极易造成枝干瘦弱,叶片光泽度差,难以形成花蕾或易落蕾。只有夏季和初秋,要躲开烈日,置于荫凉花棚下或树下。②温度条件。山茶最适宜的生长温度为15℃~25℃,具有一定的耐寒能力,可耐零下5℃的低温。冬季最好能做到晚出室、晚入室。冬季温度在零下5℃以上时不必入室,让它适当接受低温锻炼有好处。春季出室不能过早,早春气候不稳定,温差变化大,茶花特别怕早春的寒风,风大会把枝条的水分吹干。冬季茶花入室后,室温应控制在0℃~10℃之间,温度宜低不宜高,一旦超过16℃,隐芽有可能提早萌发。

  4.适时适量浇水施肥①浇水。山茶喜湿润,怕干旱,忌渍水,浇水要适时适量,该浇即浇,浇必浇透。生长期可稍湿润些,以手轻捏土感觉到土湿而不粘手为度。春秋季每隔一二天于上午或傍晚浇水1次,夏日每天早晨浇水1次,高温时段叶面喷水二三次;冬季每隔3天~5天于中午浇水1次,微润即可。但冬季开花时应见干即浇,以免发生死蕾、落蕾、哑蕾等现象。同时,浇水时应注意水质,刚放出的自来水含有漂白粉,对山茶树生长不利,应贮存一二天后再用。为防止盆土碱性化,要结合浇水适量浇施0.2%的硫酸亚铁或米醋,以利山茶生长。②施肥。山茶喜肥,但忌施生肥、高浓度肥,只能薄肥勤施,并在不同的生长期施用不同的肥料。一二年生幼树不施或施极稀薄的氮肥,以免烧苗。而成龄植株须不断追肥,以保证充足的养分供应。3月~4月追施以氮肥为主的腐熟稀薄液态肥,如矾肥水、饼肥等,以促发新根新芽,并使枝壮、叶大、色绿;4月~5月以磷肥为主,促使花芽分化,多长蕾;初夏5月~6月,以磷钾肥为主,促使花蕾膨大,提高抗御高温的能力,以免死蕾、落蕾;9月至花蕾吐色前,每隔半个月施1次氮磷钾复合肥或骨粉或0.2%磷酸二氢钾液,促使花蕾发育与开花。施肥宜在盆土不干不湿的晴天傍晚进行,翌日凌晨浇水1次。盛夏和严冬不宜施肥。

玩家汇娱乐   5.整形修剪修剪能使山茶通风透光、株型优美。山茶枝蕾宜疏忌密。夏季当新生枝条半木质化时,统观全株对过密枝做一次疏剪,对徒长枝据生长部位缩剪或全剪,内膛枝、细弱枝全剪,重叠枝、交叉枝多拉吊少绑扎,使其层次分明。8月份当花芽与叶芽可明显区分时要疏蕾。疏蕾的原则是大株、壮株、粗枝多留,小株、小枝少留。一般每个花枝留蕾1个,最多留两个,并大小搭配,使花朵成梯次开放,延长开花期。过密蕾、背向蕾、内膛蕾、畸形蕾一律疏去。切忌因留蕾太多,造成大量落蕾或出现开花大小年现象。

  6.及时防治病虫对于介壳虫、红蜘蛛、蚜虫等害虫,常于4月底开始在盆土四周深2厘米处每株山茶埋敌百虫颗粒2?!??;蜻秽?克~2克。隔3个月后再埋第2次,防治效果较好。对常见病害茶花褐斑穿孔病,可于发病初期喷洒75%科达宁(百菌清)可湿性粉剂600倍液或50%甲基托布津可湿性粉剂500倍液,防治效果较好。

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