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草鱼养殖户春季鱼苗防病要点

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2015-05-05  来源:中国渔业报  浏览次数:852642
内容摘要:  五六月份烂鳃、出血等疾病高发,严重影响到鱼的存活率。因此养殖朋友要及时做好防控工作?! ∧壳?,大部分草鱼养殖户还是以
   五六月份烂鳃、出血等疾病高发,严重影响到鱼的存活率。因此养殖朋友要及时做好防控工作。

农民信息网玩家汇娱乐 www.diormovie.com   目前,大部分草鱼养殖户还是以草料为主,有的一天喂两遍,有的一天喂三遍,草鱼经过一个冬天没有摄食,本来肠道壁就很薄,现在大量喂草,对于草鱼来说无疑是雪上加霜,每天死鱼几条或者是上十条,养殖户就拼命的下药,大多数客户都有这样的一个观念,早春死鱼,不是虫就是菌引起的疾病,不是杀虫就是杀菌,导致的结果就是鱼不但没有好转,并且死亡量加大,同时伴随的有其他的并发症,那么我们该如何正确的认识鱼病,该如何解决?

  烂鳃主要分为细菌性烂鳃、虫引起的烂鳃、水质恶化引起的烂鳃和真菌引起的烂鳃等,最常见的是细菌性烂鳃和虫引起的烂鳃。

  1.细菌性烂鳃:一般流行于4月~10月,尤以夏季流行为盛,流行水温15℃~30℃,病鱼表现为游动缓慢,体色发黑。发病初期,鳃盖骨的内表皮往往充血、糜烂,鳃丝肿胀。随着病程的发展,鳃盖内表皮腐烂加剧,甚至腐蚀成一圆形不规则的透明小窗,俗称“开天窗”。鳃线末端严重腐烂,呈“扫把样”,上附有较多污泥和杂物碎屑。鳃严重贫血呈白色,或鳃丝红白相间死亡“花瓣鳃”现象。

  解决方法:浑水和瘦水池塘出现细菌性烂鳃的时候,先进行肥水处理,肥水三天后进行杀菌,最好隔一天再进行一遍,如果水质比较肥,可以直接杀菌,后面根据池塘水质进行适当的调水。

  2.虫引起的烂鳃:鳃丝明显浮肿,黏液增多,鳃盖张开,鳃丝失血或花鳃,鱼体反应迟钝,严重时停止进食,最终因呼吸受阻窒息而死。主要在夏秋季节发病,蔓延较快。镜检即可观察到虫体蠕动。车轮虫的繁殖以24小时为一周期,针对虫引起的烂鳃来说,需要通过显微镜进行观察,针对不同的虫体选择不同的药物,车轮虫一般使用苦参碱或者槟榔碱,连续使用两次,第一天使用一次,第二天再使用一次,指环虫一般使用甲苯咪唑进行杀灭指环虫,或者先用硫酸铜+敌百虫+硫酸亚铁进行普杀,然后根据不同的虫体使用以上药物进行杀灭。

  注意事项:(1)鱼烂鳃严重、水体有机质悬浮物多的情况下,直接杀虫容易引起鱼死亡,正确的治疗步骤是:先净水,然后消毒,最后再杀虫,杀虫后注意稳水。(2)杀虫前2天~3天(晴天)每天中午开启增氧机一个小时,将池塘底部的虫卵搅到水体的上层,加快其孵化,选择晴天中午进行杀虫,泼洒杀虫药后开启两小时增氧机,把水体搅匀;杀虫后间隔两天使用海联科二氧化氯进行消毒。

玩家汇娱乐  草鱼肠炎可分为细菌性肠炎和病毒性肠炎两种:(1)草鱼细菌性肠炎,由细菌引起,病原体是肠型点状产气单胞杆菌。该病流行全国各养鱼地区,青鱼、草鱼中非常普遍,特别是当年草鱼种和二龄青鱼种。发病季节为每年3月~10月,以5月~7月为流行盛期。死亡率很高,其主要症状是:病鱼行动缓慢,失去食欲,头部显得特别黑,出现黑头黑背,肛门红肿,轻压腹部有血黄色粘液流出;把病鱼腹部剖开,可见肠道发炎充血,严重时肠道发红或者发紫,肠道韧性比较差,轻拉即断,轻轻挤压肠道,会有黄色的脓流出。

  治疗方法:停止草料的投喂,进行拌料内服,同时注意水质的调节。

  (2)病毒性肠炎症状:肠壁剪开会发现黏液很少,肠壁有时候会有出血点,肠道内有时候会有血液,肛门红肿,肠道发红,肠道内没有食物,没有脓,肠道的韧性比较大,不容易拉断,病毒性肠炎可以使用海???3505+板蓝息毒敏进行内服,5天为一个疗程。

玩家汇娱乐  注意事项:鱼病治好之后,建议使用海联科3103+3505进行拌料内服,恢复鱼的体质,做好鱼体保健;另外要达到一个好的治疗效果,药物的用量一定要根据池塘中吃食鱼的重量来计算药物的使用量。

  在此提醒养殖户,最近一段时间天气反复性比较大,养殖池容易缺氧,水质易恶化,一定要做好增氧和水质调节工作,减少鱼的应激反应,避免疾病发生。并且杀虫药物要根据防治对象有针对性的选用,不能滥用杀虫药,以免刺激鱼体,加重病情,外用的消毒药物必须泼洒均匀,食场周围和池边病原菌较多的地方可适当多泼;治疗期间及刚治好后不要大量换水、加水及捕鱼,以免刺激鱼体,引起应激反应加重病情或多病复发。

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