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提升农民人文素质助力乡村振兴

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2018-03-27  来源:合肥日报  浏览次数:823680
内容摘要:把法律的因子注入村规民约中,使其更具科学性、合法性、合理性,并由村规民约治村过渡到法律法规治村,促成农村传统文化核心价值
 

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把法律的“因子”注入“村规民约”中,使其更具科学性、合法性、合理性,并由“村规民约治村”过渡到“法律法规治村”,促成农民信息网传统文化核心价值观的现代转型。

乡村发展的本质是人的健康发展,乡村振兴关键在农民,如何使越来越多的农民在乡村社会找到家园感、归属感,既要注重物质投入的硬件建设,更要重视提高乡村人口素质的软件建设,加快农民人文素质的提升。

千百年来,中国农村社会一直是一个人情社会、熟人社会。在这里,诚信和道德“礼法合一”规范着乡村秩序,维系着乡村的人伦。 伴随着生产力的进步、商品经济的兴起以及城市化的发展,在乡村社会,人与人之间依赖血缘、亲情和地缘关系构建的信用体系逐渐松散,“村庄共同体”特有的人情关系也在逐渐淡化。有鉴于此,当前推进乡村振兴,需要因地制宜、多管齐下提升农民人文素质。

中国特色的乡村发展道路不同于其他发达国家的乡村发展,最能体现传统乡土文化内涵的是“乡里乡亲”原则,其核心价值似乎都是日常生活中形成的如“守望相助,疾病相扶”最低限度的互惠合作等小事,但正是通过这些“小事”而使人能够易于接受“大事”。当下的乡村社会已是一个经济成分、利益关系和分配方式多样化的社会,由于疏于?;?,一些民俗流失,有的已濒临绝境,从而导致一些地区物质生活和精神文化生活的双重贫困。社会性价值产生于一个社会的内部,在一个相对封闭的社区中,社会性价值不仅生产着人生的意义,而且服务于村庄秩序的生产。实施乡村振兴战略关键在于改变农民的生存环境,如把法律的“因子”注入“村规民约”中,使其更具科学性、合法性、合理性,并由“村规民约治村”过渡到“法律法规治村”,促成农村传统文化核心价值观的现代转型。

制度经济学家将约束人们行为分为正式规则、非正式规则。正式规则是指一系列政策法则,包括政治规则、经济规则和契约。非正式规则是人们在长期交往中无意识形成的、具有持久生命力并构成代代相传的习惯意识,主要包括价值观念、伦理规范、道德观念、风俗习性、意识形态等因素,在非正式规则中,意识形态处于核心地位。首先,从梳理农村传统文化根基开始,充分尊重农村传统文化中以体现农民价值和维护乡村秩序的行为规范为依归,而不能简单地用抽象的价值话语如先进性与落后性对传统乡村文化予以取舍。其次,借鉴吸收外来文化、走城乡融合发展之路,提升农耕文明,让广大农民有更多的获得感。只有乡风文明了,乡村自治、法治才能有效,才会激发他们建设家园的积极性,对未来保留更多信心和寄托更多的希望。

2018年是实施乡村振兴战略深入推进年,简单依靠工业反哺农民信息网玩家汇娱乐、城市带动乡村的思路,不能从根本上解决农业农村问题。加快缩小城乡文化发展差距,如把农村职业教育、继续教育与农村普通教育相结合,不断提高农民的职业技能。乡(镇)在重点做好综合文化站和村(社区)文化室建设基础上,不断完善广播电视“村村通”工程,拓宽农村喜闻乐见的文化产品渠道,引导民间资本、外资或非营利组织加大对革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区文化服务网络建设支持和帮扶力度,让乡村文化“活”起来。同时,通过民间艺人、返乡退休老干部、社会成功人士、大学生村官等,发挥他们对群众文化的倡导、示范、带头作用,见贤思齐、崇德向善、按照产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕的总要求,努力建设一批文化名镇、名村,实现“一个区县一个文化品牌”。

懂农业,方能知轻重;爱农村,方能守初心。实施乡村振兴战略,乡村文化体系重建不是简单地重建传统的农业文化,也不是全面倒向城市化,甚至将大量农民进城居住作为终极目标。而是要精准施策,不驰于空想、不骛于虚声,建立城市文化与乡村文化的互哺共生、形成内在契合,一步一个脚印,不断提升农民的人文素质,让乡村成为人民向往的美丽家园,如费孝通老先生所言“各美其美,美美与共”,从根本上增强乡村的内生发展能力。

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